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Our Baby's First Two Years
by Robert M. Selig, M.D., FAAP & Joann C. Cozza, D.O., FAAP

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Immunization is recommended for the following childhood diseases: (1) Mea­sles (2) German measles  (3) Mumps (4) Diphtheria (5) Tetanus (6) Pertussis (7) Polio (8) HIB (9) Hepatitis B (10) Chickenpox

The information below should help you understand the disease and the vac­cination for the disease.  Be sure that each of your children has all of the recom­mended immunizations.

 

DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, PERTUSSIS (DTP)

 

ABOUT THE DISEASE

 

Diphtheria

1.  Affects the throat and nasal passages resulting in severe difficulty breathing.

2.  Caused by bacteria transmitted to a child in contact with an infected person.

3.  Can cause death.

 

Tetanus (Lockjaw)

1.  Affects nervous system resulting in severe muscle spasms.

2.  Caused by bacteria that infect open cuts and wounds in contact with dirty or rusty surfaces.

3.  Can cause death.

 

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

1.  Affects the throat and lung passages resulting in severe coughing.

2.  Caused by bacteria transmitted to a child in contact with an infected person.

3. Can cause ear infections, pneumonia, convulsions, brain damage and death.

 

ABOUT THE VACCINE

 

DPT

1. Given to children under age 7 years.

2.  Almost all children will be protected after completing a basic series and a booster.

3.  Reactions may include soreness, a lump at the injection site, and fever for 12 to 24 hours after the injection, fussiness, or sleepiness.  These symptoms last 24-48 hours.

4.  Very rarely causes neurologic symptoms.

5.  Pertussis portion of vaccine:whole cell type.

 

DTaP

1.  Similar to DTP, except Pertussis portion has been changed:acellular type.

2.  Associated with less side effects than DTP.

 

 

TETANUS DIPHTHERIA TOXOID (Td)

1.  Should be given every 10 years after the basic childhood series.

2.  Almost all persons will be protected after the basic series and a booster.

3.  Common reactions include a sore arm or lump at the injection site and occasional fever for 12 to 24 hours after the vaccination.

4.  Severe reactions are very rare and usually occur in adults.

5.  Everytime you get a minor cut, you do not need a Tetanus shot.  Children under 10 years, who are up to date on their immunizations, do not need another tetanus shot until they are 14-16 years old.

 

 

POLIO

 

ABOUT THE DISEASE

 

1.  Attacks the nervous system.

2.  Causes paralysis of arms legs and the muscles used for breathing.

3.  Can cause death.

 

ABOUT THE VACCINE:

 

Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

 

1.  Given by drops (not an injection).

2.  No common reactions to the vaccine.

3.  Small risk of vaccine-associated paralysis in child given vaccine and in susceptible, close personal contacts (one case of paralytic disease in healthly child per 6.8 million doses of OPV given).

4.  Contraindication:  OPV should not be given to a child if a someone living in the same household is receiving chemotherapy (immunosuppressed).

Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)

 

1.  Given as an injection.

2.  Does not contain live virus.

3.  No serious side effects known.

4.  IPV contains trace amounts of neomycin and streptomycin (antibiotics).  Child with known allergy to these antibiotics may develop allergic reaction after receiving IPV.

5.  IPV is recommended in children with immune problems, healthy children in close contact with immunocompromised people (including those who are receiving cancer therapy or who have had organ transplants),  healthy children in household contact with people who have AIDS or are HIV-positive, and in children whose parents refuse to immunize their child with OPV.

 

 

MEASLES (Rubeola)

 

ABOUT THE DISEASE

 

1.  Affects the nasal passages, eyes, skin and lungs resulting in high fever and blotchy skin rash.

2.  Caused by a virus that is spread through the air.

3.  Can cause pneumonia, ear infections, conjunctivitis, convulsions, brain damage, and death.

ABOUT THE VACCINE

 

1.  5-10% of children may develop a fever  and rash 7-10 days after receiving the vaccine.

2.  1 person in 3,000,000 vaccinated may develop a neurologic problem.

 

 

GERMAN MEASLES (Rubella)

 

ABOUT THE DISEASE

 

1.  Affects the skin and joints resulting in mild fever, rash, and joint pain.

2.  Caused by virus that is transmitted through the air.

3.  Can cause miscarriage or stillbirth in pregnant women who become infected with the virus.

4.  Causes multiple birth defects in babies born to women who become infected with the virus.

 

ABOUT THE VACCINE

 

1.  About 15% of young children and 5-10% of teenagers may develop temporary  joint pains.

2.  Can cause a rash, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.

 

 

MUMPS

 

ABOUT THE DISEASE

 

1.  Affects the salivary glands resulting in fever and significant swelling of the face below the ear.

2.  Caused by a virus that is transmitted through the air.

3.  Can cause  arithritis, deafness, infection of the testes causing sterility, and brain damage.

 

ABOUT THE VACCINE

In very rare cases, fever and swelling of salivary glands may occur after vaccination.

 

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