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Dyslexia is a neurologically-based, often familial, disorder which interferes with the acquisition and processing of language. Varying in degrees of severity, it is manifested by difficulties in receptive and expressive language, including phonological processing, in reading, writing, spelling, handwriting, and sometimes in arithmetic.

Dyslexia is not a result of lack of motivation, sensory impairment, inadequate instructional or environmental opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may occur together with these conditions.

Although dyslexia is lifelong, individuals with dyslexia frequently respond successfully to timely and appropriate intervention.

As noted, dyslexia is not just a severe reading disorder characterized by reversals. It is a syndrome of many and varied reading and non-reading symptoms such as:

  • Memory instability for letters, words, or numbers.
  • A tendency to skip over or scramble letters, words, and sentences.
  • A poor, slow, fatiguing reading ability prone to compensatory head tilting, near-far focusing, and finger pointing.
  • Reversals of letters such as b and d, words such as saw and was, and numbers such as 6 and 9 or 16 and 61.
  • Letter and word blurring, doubling, movement, scrambling, omission, insertion, size change, etc.
  • Poor concentration, distractibility, light sensitivity (photophobia), tunnel vision, delayed visual and phonetic processing, etc.

  • Messy, poorly angulated, or drifting handwriting prone to size, spacing, and letter-sequencing errors.

Spelling, Math, Memory, and Grammar
  • Memory instability for spelling, grammar, math, names, dates, and lists, or sequences such as the alphabet, the days of the week and months of the year, and directions.

  • Speech disorders such as slurring, stuttering, minor articulation errors, poor word recall, and auditory-input and motor-output speech lags.

  • Right/left and related directional uncertainty.

  • Delay in learning to tell time.

Concentration and Activity
  • Impaired concentration, distractibility, hyperactivity, or over activity

Behavior, Temper, or Impulse Disturbances

Balance and Coordination Difficulties with balance and coordination functions, i.e., walking, running, skipping, hopping, tying shoelaces, and buttoning buttons.

Psychosomatics Difficulties with headaches, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, motion sickness, abdominal complaints, excessive sweating, and bed­wetting.

Self-Esteem Feeling stupid, ugly, incompetent, brainless.

Phobias and Related Mood and Obsessive/Compulsive Disorders

  • Fears of the dark, heights, getting lost, going to school.
  • Fear or the avoidance of various balance, coordination, sports, and motion-related activities.
  • Mood disturbances.
  • Obsessions and compulsions.

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